PCB Fabrication Process

Printed circuit boards are commonly used in every electronic product found in the market today. However, there are alternatives used such as the point-to-point construction and wire wrap. PCBs need extra design effort in order to create the ideal circuit layout. Assembly and manufacturing are usually done automated to avoid errors and other similar issues. PCB fabrication is relatively cheaper and quicker compared to other wiring techniques.

When the circuit boards have copper connections only and no embedded parts, it’s more appropriate to call them printed wiring boards or etched wiring boards. PCBs with electronic components are called printed circuit assemblies.

Hence, the term printed circuit board is informally used for assembled and bare boards. Before, printed circuits were common components used in electrical devices. Some are extremely bulky with unreliable design that needed regular replacement and larger sockets.

Understanding the Process

PCB Fabrication For prototypes or small production requirements, turret board or wire wrap is more efficient to use. But that was then. Today, most PCBs are printed through the use of multi-step techniques like photolithographic patterning and traditional vacuum deposition. However, such methods also have drawbacks – much like any other process.

The circuit boards require high-processing temperature, are expensive, and involve toxic wastes. This is why it’s important to hire professional a PCB fabrication service provider in the country.

The following are the fundamental steps involved in modern PCB fabrication:

  • Preparation of front end tool data
  • Photo tools preparation
  • Inner layers printing
  • Inner layers etching
  • Automatic optical inspection and register punch
  • Bonding and laying up
  • PCB drilling
  • Deposition of electroless copper
  • Outer layers imaging
  • Plating
  • Outer layers etching
  • Solder mask application
  • Finishing RoHS-compliant surfaces
  • Putting plated gold edge-connectors
  • Curing and silk screening
  • Testing the electrical connections
  • V-cut scoring profiling
  • Final inspection

Advantages of Specialized PCB Fabrication

Tech companies across the globe have various options to choose from when it comes to PCB production. For instance, large international corporations will choose their in-house facilities to avoid more expenses. However, small OEMs may not afford to buy their own resources for the assembly process. The thing here is that, where to these small companies obtain such services to ensure quality outputs.

PCB Fabrication ProcessPCBNet.com is one reliable source of printed circuit boards made using quality designs. With a professional PCB manufacturer, you are guaranteed to receive premium PCBs for your exact manufacturing needs. Oftentimes, companies choose to order from experienced manufacturers to satisfy their requirements and expectations. The modern production of PCBs for batch quantities, prototype runs, and large production assistance has become a significant part of every manufacturing business today.

By choosing the best supplier that can provide bare board manufacturing and assembling services, you can get what you exactly need at more competitive rates. In fact, a one-stop shop approach is practical for the seamless transition of manufacturing and assembly methods. It’s also simpler to audit and oversee the manufacturing process of the company than assessing part by part.

For instance, the entire project can be discussed and resolved through a personal visit or inspection before starting anything.

Future of Printed Circuit Boards

In the upcoming years, it’s not impossible to obtain revolutionized printed circuit boards as long as there are continued advancements in technology. In fact, 3D printing has increasingly become a mainstream method in the PCB industry today. And with the ultimate advantages of PCB production offered by various companies in the market, you are sure to take advantage of more improved circuit boards for your tech production needs.

Benefits include reduced time to market and reduced lead time. Without any delays in the fabrication and shipping, clients are guaranteed to receive their packaged based on the agreed schedule. PCBNet.com is very particular in delivery time to keep clients satisfied. So if you currently need a reliable PCB manufacturer in the country, this company can be your best choice. All you need to do is provide all necessary details to start the project right away (you’ll also be informed if something’s missing).

Through suppliers that are depending on the customer needs, circuit boards are conveniently delivered. Be sure to keep these tips in mind to help you find the right partner for your PCB needs. Also, you can ask for samples or check out the website to witness how the company actually works.

Don’t forget to read some customer reviews online to guarantee quality and affordability. Doing some research and comparing quotes online will also make the process much easier for you. While that might take time, it’ll be all worth it in the end.

Author Bio :

www.pcbnet.com is one reliable source of PCBs made using quality designs. With very particular in delivery time to keep clients satisfied. So if you currently need a reliable PCB manufacturer, we can be your best choice.

Tips On Choosing Golf Apparel

If you like to play golf, you need to have the right apparel to play at your best. With the right golf apparel, you can move freely and easily. It is very important to have a good swing if you want to do well in this sport. Hence, you need to choose pants, shirts, vests, jackets, and accessories that will not only make you look like a professional golfer, but will also actually increase your chances of winning.

Some Important Tips On Choosing Golf Apparel :

When it comes to golf pants, you can choose from a variety of materials and styles. Plaid pants are traditional and simple. You can go with dandy prints and flashy colors. You can also wear khaki pants or twill slacks. As much as possible, you should avoid wearing denim jeans. Not only will they make you look unprofessional, but they will also restrict your movements. If you want to be taken seriously in golf, denim is not the right choice of material for you.

GolfWhen it comes to golf shirts, you can simply wear a casual collared shirt. It can be a pique knit jersey with a short button placket and hemmed or cuffed sleeves. It can also be a classic short-sleeved shirt or a long-sleeved shirt, which is ideal for a cool, rainy, or windy day. If you are a woman, you can find golf shirts that are similar to men’s shirts except with more feminine colors and cuts through the midsection.

Keep in mind that your golf apparel should be smooth and breathable. You need to go for fabrics that will let your skin breathe and avoid irritation. They should be designed using moisture-wicking technology. They should feature microfibers that will absorb your sweat and let it evaporate. They should also allow you to have a full range of motion. You should not experience any difficulty each time you swing, lean, and flex.

Golf clubsAs much as possible, you should go for a four-way stretch fabric that will provide you with full mobility so you can perform at your best. In addition, you may want to consider wearing golf apparel with ultraviolet protection. As you know, the ultraviolet rays of the sun can be harmful for your skin. If you do not protect yourself against these rays, you can develop skin cancer and other skin conditions.

Nonetheless, even though it is crucial to choose clothes that give you protection as well as make you feel comfortable, it would not hurt to choose pieces that also make you look attractive. There are actually plenty of great-looking clothes you can choose from. Do not be afraid to mix and match prints, colors, and patterns. You can also layer pullovers and golf jackets with sleeveless blouses or polo shirts to make you look fashionable.

Golf jacketsYour golf apparel will not be complete without vests and jackets. Golf vests are usually available in fleece, zipper windbreaker, knitted argyle, and solid sweater styles. They are especially recommended if you are active in playing golf. They do not have sleeves, so they can keep your torso warm and your arms free. Because of this, you can achieve a perfect swing. What’s more, layering a vest over your shirt can make you look very sophisticated.

Golf jackets, on the other hand, are especially designed to let players achieve their maximum range of motion. You can find rainproof jackets and windbreakers that are made with woven materials. They may also feature gussets or knit panels under the arms. Then again, if you really want to complete your look, you should add golf accessories, such as a visor or a hat. It will keep the sun out of your eyes, keep your hair from getting messed up, and make you look much cooler.

If you really want to complete your look, you should add golf apparel, such as pants, shirts, vests, jackets, and accessories. Here rockbottomgolf.com you can choose from a variety of materials and styles.

3 Common Practices that Motivational Speaker Success Says are Wrong

What are the words that first come to your mind when you think about motivational speaking? Fame? Influence? Money? Best-selling books? Personal assistants? Private jets? Fans? Oprah Winfrey perhaps? What are the names that you first associate with motivational speaking? Tony Robbins? Les Brown? Eric Thomas? The duo of Jack Canfield and Mark Victor of the Chicken Soup fame? The late Zig Ziglar and Steve Jobs maybe?

We tend to think about the famous personalities and all of the benefits that come with being insanely popular when we talk about motivational speaking. They are the pinnacle of the profession, after all. However, we, at motivational-speaker-success.com, find it bothering that most people only see the good things of entering the world of public speaking. Expectations become higher, which, as a result, make disappointments harder to bear.

It is absolutely fine to keep your hopes up and take the same path that successful motivational speakers have taken in the past. However, you need to stay realistic when practicing the profession. Emulate the authorities without overestimating your current abilities and knowledge. Find the patterns that led others to success without forgetting to stop and look back to see if they are really the right way to excel in your field of expertise. Motivational-speaker-success.com believes that what works really well for one motivational speaker may not be the same for another.Motivational Speaker

Let us help you find the best path by revealing common motivational speaking practices that we think are wrong.
1. Assuming that the audience know what you are talking about.

It works with stand-up comedians simply because they can elicit laughter from the audience’s inability to grasp the situation. For motivational speakers though, it can confuse them.

Do not leave out some detail and act like you are surprised to see confused faces in the audience whenever you are sharing a story, telling a fact, or recounting something that you have already told in past speaking engagements. Speak for the most confused person in the venue, not for the smartest one.

2. Using “canned” speech for several events.

This was the practice even of established and popular motivational speakers before the era of social media. Why not? There was very limited means for people to know what had already been told verbatim in prior events.

Nowadays though, preparing a one-speech-fits-all script is no longer recommended regardless if your events are too private for public sharing. There are a lot of ways for people to discover your originality—or lack of it—other than video sharing. You can be discussed in the social media and what could have been a great opportunity to launch referral marketing may turn out to be a big mistake.

Becoming busy with multiple speaking engagements is not an excuse to use canned speech all the time. In fact, it is a sign that you should have started to hire your own team of writers and researchers. The core messages should come from you, but there is no need to hog all the tasks, from proofreading to information validating.

The least you can do is revise one speech in ways that it becomes relevant to your particular audience. That still demands some amount of research and validation so may as well start anew.

3. Working for eight hours a day.

A lot of followers and regular visitors of our site, motivational-speaker-success.com, think that becoming a motivational speaker gives them the freedom to use their time however they want to. That is where they are wrong.

Working for eight hours a day will delay your income by six to nine months. That leaves you with one whole year of waiting to find a return-client and two full years of waiting before you become financially stable.

Becoming a motivational speaker is like becoming a start-up businessman. You should be working longer, earlier in the morning, and later in the evening because you have a lot of things to learn, do, relearn, undo, and discover only to make your workload heavier.

Even before you start getting booked one event after another, you’ll have to do a lot of research to master your field of expertise, market yourself to your target audience, look for leads and platforms to reach them, earn exposure and publicity, and write materials.

The first six months will be filled with trial and error, so your prior efforts may no longer mean anything eventually.There are a lot of wrong practices that you still have to learn. What is right today may no longer be right tomorrow. You have to be constantly updated, and one of the best ways to do that is by visiting our site, motivational-speaker-success.com, regularly.


The acronym SARMs stands for “Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators.” They bind with androgens and act in a similar manner as androgenic drugs like anabolic steroids (ex., testosterone). However, they are more selective than anabolic steroids; thus, they have less uses than these steroids. On the other hand, their selectivity means that they are safer to use than steroids.

The Science behind the Molecule

Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators refer to a group of androgen receptor ligands. This means that they bind with androgens. The ligand/androgen pair then travels to the cell’s nucleus and signals it to start gene transcription. This gene transcription may result in increased production of proteins and certain molecules, depending on which genes are stimulated.

Steroidal versions of this molecule were first studied in the 1940s and were based on a testosterone model. Today, non-steroidal versions of this group have been produced by independent pharmaceutical companies. These include cyclic quinolinones and aryl propinoamides, which exhibit anabolic activity on skeletal muscles as well as tissue selectivity.

Anabolic activity refers to the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler molecules while storing energy (“anabolism”). Anabolic steroids and hormones help produce proteins in cells, which contribute to muscle building.

SARMSDrugs that are able to stimulate or block hormone receptors in specific conditions are called “selective receptor modulators.” This mimics the beneficial effects of synthetic and natural steroids in a specific tissue without causing unwanted harm to other tissues. One such drug is SARMs. They give the same benefits as Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (like testosterone) but are less likely to produce unwanted side effects. They can cause fat loss, increased muscle mass, or increased bone density in particular tissues without affecting others.

Their Importance

Steroids are often prescribed for muscle degeneration or for hormone replacement therapy. However, there could be several unwanted side-effects to steroid intake. This is why alternative molecules are being researched by pharmaceutical companies.

Anabolic Androgenic Steroids can cause following:
•    Prostate cancer stimulation
•    Acne
•    Over-stimulation of hair growth
•    Breast development in males
•    Male pattern baldness
•    High blood pressure
•    Cholesterol imbalance
•    Liver toxicity
•    Growth of the left ventricle of the heart
•    Impairment of the body’s natural testosterone production

In comparison, stimulating the androgen receptors in muscle or bone only can prevent these side effects.

The benefits associated with these selective androgen receptors are:
•    Can be taken orally
•    Prevention of muscle loss during weight loss
•    Growth of lean muscles
•    Rehabilitation after injury
•    Post-cycle therapy after anabolic use (they can restore normal testosterone levels in the body)
•    Anabolic effects even with low dosage
•    Help in aerobic and anaerobic endurance
•    Heals joint injuries
•    Doesn’t significantly damage the liver
•    Ideal for Androgen Replacement Therapy, especially in cases of osteoporosis and muscle wasting

Androgen Replacement Therapy

Hormone replacementCurrently, oral androgen replacements are rather limited. There are two commonly used forms: Andriol, which is considered expensive and ineffective, and Methyl testosterone, which can damage the liver. SARMs can be a good alternative to these, since it can also be taken orally and still produce beneficial effects without resulting in liver toxicity.

Many types of SARMs are presently undergoing development. They have different androgenic and anabolic activity, as well as varying potential side effects. Generally, though, most produce few side effects and have anabolic profiles similar to testosterone. The one furthest along, Ostarine, is at the third and final stage for clinical development.

SARMs were banned for a few years by the World Anti-Doping Agency, but efforts are underway for developing testing protocols for them. They have a relatively short half life, unique structures, and a short research history. These characteristics present a complex problem to many doping authorities.